Americans hoping to travel to other countries during the pandemic face an array of challenges, including closed borders, quarantine and testing regulations, possible Covid-19 exposure during transit and delays in getting their passports.
People wanting to learn about restrictions and the prevalence of the coronavirus in specific countries can go to the U.S. State Department’s website, which uses a four-tier ranking system, or they can go to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention site, which uses three levels to give coronavirus information for travelers.
Like all public interactions in these unprecedented times, air travel itself carries certain risks for contracting Covid-19. About 2,187 Transportation Security Administration employees had tested positive for the virus as of Oct. 21, and nine workers had died from it. Infected agents may have had direct contact with the public at nearly 70 U.S. airports in the first three weeks of October, according to the T.S.A., which posts a list of the affected airports on its website.
When returning to the United States, passengers from some countries are only allowed to land at certain airports where they will undergo enhanced screening. In addition, the C.D.C. advises Americans to avoid contact with others for 14 days after they return from international destinations.
While Americans continue to be barred from many countries, including much of Europe, here is a list of countries, in alphabetical order, that as of Oct. 21 were open to U.S. citizens, or were expected to open soon.
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Americans are allowed to enter. No coronavirus test is needed and there are no quarantine requirements, according to the U.S. Embassy in Albania.
Anguilla is allowing limited entry to some travelers after extensive screening, but since the United States is generally considered a high-risk country, Americans will be far down in the queue. In addition to favoring those from lower-risk countries, priority will be given to visitors planning longer stays and to those with investments in the country.
All visitors must have a negative PCR test taken three to five days before arrival. Another test will be given on arrival, on day 10 and — for those coming from higher-risk countries — on day 14. While not a full quarantine, visitors will have limited contact with locals during the testing period. Fees for the application start at $1,000 for two people and go up from there.
Air travelers over age 12 must complete a Health Declaration Form, a traveler accommodation form, and must provide a certificate of a negative coronavirus test taken within seven days of arrival. There may be further screening on arrival, and passengers must pay $100 for an additional test if health authorities decide one is needed. Visitors should self-monitor for Covid-19 symptoms for up to 14 days.
The islands are open to those with a Bahamas Health Visa, and, if over age 10, proof of a negative PCR Covid-19 test taken no more than five days before arrival. Everyone must quarantine for 14 days, and in order to remain on the island show another negative test at the end of the two weeks, taken at their own expense.
Inter-island travel requires a Travel Health Visa. Those traveling from New Providence must have a negative Covid-19 test before applying for the Health Visa, and upon arrival must quarantine on the island for 14 days, or the duration of their stay if it is shorter. A person traveling from Abaco to Elbow Cay, Grand Cay, Green Turtle Cay or Man-O-War does not need a negative test, but must still quarantine for two weeks upon arrival. Travel is not permitted from islands that have been notified of an impending locked down.
People from high-risk countries like the United States must have proof of a negative coronavirus PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival. That information is used to fill out an online immigration and customs form, and a copy of the test result should be taken on the trip. After landing, a health screening will be performed at the airport, and travelers will be confined to limited areas on the grounds of their preapproved hotel, resort or villa for two to three days, at which point they will be retested. If that test is negative, they may leave the property. However, a requirement to self-monitor for symptoms continues for seven days.
In-transit passengers should have proof of a negative coronavirus test before landing.
Americans are allowed to enter. No coronavirus test is needed and there are no quarantine requirements, according to the U.S. Embassy in Belarus.
Bermuda requires most travelers age 10 and up to provide proof of a negative coronavirus test taken within three days of their flight (although tests taken within seven days will be accepted). In addition, mandatory Covid-19 tests are given at the airport, and travelers must quarantine while awaiting the results. Additional tests are given on days four, eight and 14 of a traveler’s stay. A $75 fee covers their cost. Children age 9 and younger don’t have to take virus tests, but pay a $30 fee.
All travelers must complete an online travel authorization form one to three days before their flight, then take and record their temperature with their own thermometer twice a day for the first 14 days of their visit and report it online.
Brazil is allowing people to arrive by air for visits of up to 90 days as long as they can show proof of health insurance that includes coronavirus coverage before boarding their flights.
The country is open to U.S. citizens who can present a negative PCR test result taken no more than 96 hours before departure. (The clock begins from the moment the test was performed.) Passengers must also complete an immigration form.
Costa Rica is open to residents of Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, Virginia and Wyoming. Residents of Washington, D.C., are also allowed to visit. Plans call for all Americans to be allowed on Nov. 1.
A driver’s license is required to prove residency. Tourists from authorized states may enter if their flight includes a stop in a state that is not on the approved list, as long as they don’t leave the airport.
Until Oct. 26, the entry requirements include a negative PCR Covid-19 test taken within 72 hours of arrival, a completed electronic Health Pass, and proof of medical insurance that covers up to $50,000 in coronavirus expenses and $2,000 in hotel costs. After Oct. 26, no test will be required, although travelers with a fever, dry cough, sore throat or other similar symptoms were asked to postpone their trip.
American tourists may visit only with proof of paid accommodation. Travelers must present a negative result for a Covid-19 PCR test taken within the previous 48 hours. If they have an older test result, the person can enter, but must self-quarantine until they can show another negative test, which would be taken at their own expense. Those without negative results must self-quarantine for 14 days.
Travelers from the United States are allowed to enter with a negative Covid-19 test taken within the previous 72 hours. Health ministers may order additional testing or quarantine.
Because the United States is considered a high-risk country, travelers need to fill out an online health questionnaire and, before boarding their planes, show proof of a negative PCR test taken 24 to 72 hours before arrival. They also need to show notification of health clearance to travel.
Upon landing, travelers will be screened and given a rapid Covid-19 test at the airport, and must await the results in a government-approved facility. If the test is negative, they must still quarantine for five days in an approved facility at their own expense. At the end of the five days, another test will be given.
Aruba is open to U.S. residents, but those from nearly half of the states are considered high-risk, and, if they are over age 15, must upload proof of a negative PCR test taken between 12 and 72 hours before flying. Residents of the other states have the option of uploading a test or having one taken at the airport for $75. Travelers must quarantine at their lodgings for up to 24 hours while awaiting results. All visitors must complete an Embarkation/Disembarkation card. Mandatory insurance is also required.
Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius are closed to those who have been in the United States within the previous 14 days. It may be possible to visit Saba and Sint Eustatius by requesting permission from the government. When it is granted, a negative coronavirus test and a mandatory quarantine will be required.
Although commercial flights between the United States and Curaçao have not been announced, the country says it is open to residents of the United States who have a negative Covid-19 test taken within 72 hours of departure. Residents of Connecticut, Florida, New Jersey or New York, with state-issued ID to prove residency, need not quarantine if they have not been outside of those four states in the previous two weeks. Visitors from all other states must quarantine for 14 days. Travelers must complete an online immigration card and a Health Department passenger locator card before travel. Insurance is required.
Dutch St. Maarten is open to those over age 10 arriving from the United States with a completed health declaration form and proof of a negative test taken within five days of travel.
Authorities randomly administer a quick breath test to between 3 and 10 percent of arriving passengers and to those who show symptoms of the coronavirus. Through the end of the year, the country is providing free emergency travel assistance to visitors staying at hotels that will cover Covid-19 testing, lodging and flight change penalties in the event of an infection.
Americans are allowed to enter with proof of a negative PCR test taken no more than 10 days before entry. Travelers without the test may take one at their own expense upon arrival. They must quarantine at their accommodation pending a negative test result, according to the U.S. Embassy in Ecuador.
Those visiting the Galápagos Islands should arrive in Ecuador with proof of a recent negative PCR Covid-19 test, then take a second test at their own expense upon arrival and wait at their lodging for the results. For those over age 18, a second negative test is required to proceed to the Galápagos.
Americans over age 6 are allowed to enter with written proof of a negative Covid-19 test taken within 96 hours of arrival. Proof of health insurance is required, according to the U.S. Embassy in Egypt.
U.S. citizens over age 10 must have proof of a negative Covid-19 test taken within five days of arrival, and then must self-quarantine for seven days.
St. Barts requires visitors age 11 and older to show a negative test taken within 72 hours of arrival and to sign a sworn statement that they have no symptoms and haven’t been in contact with a confirmed coronavirus case in the previous 14 days. Those without a test result will be denied boarding. Visitors staying longer than a week must take an additional test at a cost of about $155 on the eighth day of their trips.
French St. Martin is open with restrictions that differ depending upon the arrival airport. A negative PCR test taken within the previous 10 days is required for those over age 10 coming from the United States to Princess Juliana Airport. Those flying into Grand Case L’Esperance Airport must have taken the test within 72 hours of their departure. An online health authorization must also be completed.
Guadeloupe and Martinique are currently not allowing visitors from the United States.
Travelers to French Polynesia, including the islands of Tahiti and Bora Bora, must show proof of a negative Covid-19 test taken within the previous 72 hours in order to board their flights if they are age 6 or older. Those arriving at the airport will be given a test kit for the virus that contains an oral and nasal swab, and on the fourth day in the islands, the visitor must complete the self-test. Tourists must also complete an electronic entry form attesting that they have travel insurance that would cover coronavirus expenses, or agreeing to personally assume all costs.
U.S. citizens can enter with proof of a negative Covid-19 test and after passing an airport screening. They must quarantine for up to 14 days. Curfews are in effect, as are restrictions on intercity or interstate travel.
Authorities are asking nonessential travelers not to visit the Republic of Ireland. Visitors from the United States must complete a public health Passenger Locator Form and self-quarantine for 14 days. Northern Ireland also has a mandatory two-week quarantine for those coming from the United States.
Tourists age 12 and older arriving from the United States must upload a negative Covid-19 test that was taken at an accredited facility within 10 days of their arrival date. All passengers must complete a Travel Authorization screening form that should be submitted for approval up to five days before travel.
Those staying within the “resilient corridor,” where operators have been trained in Covid-19 protocols, may leave the property to visit coronavirus-compliant attractions within the corridor, via approved transportation. Those who aren’t staying within the resilient corridor must quarantine for 14 days.
Asymptomatic visitors to Kenya from the United States who have proof of a negative Covid-19 test within the previous four days do not need to quarantine for 14 days unless they are from California, Florida or Texas.
Americans are allowed to enter without restrictions, however, the State Department has the country under its highest alert.
“We urge you to postpone or cancel travel to Kosovo this summer. Kosovo remains under a Level 4 Health Advisory – Do Not Travel due to Covid-19. The health situation is deteriorating, and public institutions are struggling to keep up with demand,” the U.S. Embassy in Kosovo says on its website.
Visitors over 1 year of age must have proof of a negative PCR test taken not more than 72 hours before the flight. Screenings will be done at the airport and some travelers may be asked to voluntarily submit to another test.
The country requires tourists to have a confirmed booking at a tourist facility. People may stay in multiple resorts after obtaining the approval from the Ministry of Tourism, otherwise the entire vacation needs to be at the same hotel, except when transiting. A representative of the hotel is expected to meet guests at the airport.
The United States is not on the list of green countries for travel to Malta, however, anyone can enter the country if they first spend 14 days in an approved country. That means that American can travel to Croatia or the United Arab Emirates, for instance, and after spending 14 days there, travel to Malta.
The U.S. State Department has lowered its warning about travel to most regions of Mexico to Level 3, or “Reconsider Travel,” but land crossings between the United States and Mexico remain closed until at least Nov. 21. U.S. visitors can arrive by plane. Tourists may be subject to temperature checks and other health screenings, and those showing symptoms may be asked to quarantine voluntarily.
American tourists are allowed to enter with a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of boarding their flights. There is no quarantine for arriving passengers, however, on their fifth day in the country, visitors must be available for Covid-19 tests, and they must be reachable on the seventh day to obtain the result.
General tourism has not resumed, but trekkers and mountaineers with a visa may visit if they have a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival; a hotel where they must quarantine for at least seven days; and $5,000 in insurance for coronavirus-related treatment. Tourists must take another virus test, at their own expense, on the fifth day of their quarantine.
North Macedonia is open to Americans with no testing or quarantine restrictions.
Passengers must complete an electronic affidavit before checking in for their flight, and be able to present a negative Covid-19 test result upon landing. If the test result is more than 48 hours old, or if the traveler doesn’t have a test result, a rapid Covid-19 test will be performed at the airport, at a cost of $50.
If the rapid test result is positive, the Panamanian government will arrange and pay for a hotel stay for a mandatory seven-day quarantine, at which time the visitor will be retested.
Airport screenings are also in place.
Visitors need to present a negative molecular Covid-19 test taken no more than 72 hours before arrival. Those who are awaiting test results must quarantine for 14 days, or until a negative result is provided to the Puerto Rico Health Department. Similarly, those who arrive without a test will be directed to a local site for testing at their own expense and must quarantine until a negative result is obtained. Those who decline testing must quarantine for 14 days. An online travel declaration form must also be completed.
The country plans to allow tourism to resume on Oct. 31. Visitors must have a negative Covid-19 test taken within 72 hours of travel, and complete an entry form. For the first week, travelers must stay at their hotel, but may move about the property. On the seventh day, they must undergo another coronavirus test. If negative, some excursions will be allowed. Those planning longer stays will receive another test on day 14, and if they are healthy, they may move freely.
Those age 5 and older must email proof of a negative test taken within the past seven days. They also need confirmed reservations at a certified accommodation provider, quarantine facility or verification that they plan to stay on a boat during their visit. Travelers must take a printed copy of their test results, the automatic-response email they will receive, and the travel authorization letter they will also receive. A completed travel registration form must be submitted at least three days before departure.
Screenings will be conducted at the airport. Those without symptoms must take a certified taxi to their accommodations, and are required to remain on the grounds for 14 days except for transfers to another such property, or to participate in certain approved activities. After two weeks, people may travel freely within Saint Lucia.
Visitors from the United States must have a pre-arrival travel form completed and show a negative test for the virus taken within the previous five days. Another test will be given upon arrival.
Travelers also must have proof of five nights of paid accommodation at an approved hotel, and must quarantine there for five days. Another test must be done between day four and day five of quarantine and come back negative. At the discretion of health officials, visitors may be monitored for nine to 16 days.
All travelers must track their temperature for two weeks and report any changes to health authorities.
In-transit passengers must have proof a negative test taken five days before travel and must stay at the airport or at a government approved hotel while awaiting their connection.
Serbia is open to Americans with no testing or quarantine restrictions.
Passengers arriving on an international flight to Tanzania must complete a Health Surveillance Form and undergo screening, including a possible Covid-19 test.
The country is open to Americans with no travel restrictions. Health screening and possible testing may be conducted at the airport.
Although it isn’t supposed to be required of foreign tourists, some airlines may require a Hayat Eve Sigar (HES) code for most people attempting to purchase airline tickets for domestic or international travel, according to the U.S. Embassy in Turkey. The code is obtained by sending a text. Information can be found on the Embassy website or on the website of Turkish Airlines.
The Turks and Caicos Islands is requiring a negative test result taken within five days of travel for anyone over age 10. Visitors also must have insurance that covers any Covid-19 related medical costs. A Travel Authorization Form that will ask health questions must be completed by all passengers before boarding a plane to the islands.
Travelers over age 12 must have proof of a negative coronavirus PCR test taken within 96 hours of their flight in order to board a commercial aircraft to the country. Many passengers are also tested upon arrival, and some may need to self quarantine or may be sent to a quarantine facility. International health insurance is also required.
Residents may travel outside of the U.A.E. for “general reasons,” but must obtain a negative Covid-19 test result and quarantine upon their return.
Visitors can travel to Abu Dhabi by road, but must present a negative result from a test taken in the previous 48 hours. Those who stay for more than six days are required to take an additional test. Travelers arriving in Abu Dhabi are required to wear a GPS bracelet for 14 days.
Anyone arriving from the United States must be prepared to isolate for 14 days, or face a penalty of up to $1,250. Passengers transiting in an airport are exempt, as are those going directly from one port to another; for instance, from Heathrow to Eurostar.
The U.S. Virgin Islands are open to visitors. Those age 5 and older must have a negative Covid-19 test taken within five days of arrival, or show a positive test for antibodies within the previous four months.
The results should be submitted via a travel health form, and the original test result must be presented upon arrival. Airport screenings are also in effect.
Those who don’t have a test result must quarantine for 14 days or the duration of their stay, whichever is shorter. They can also get out of quarantine by producing the needed test result.